Almost 200 weed scientists across the U.S. and Canada participated in the 2016 survey, the second conducted by WSSA.
A 2015 baseline survey explored the most common and troublesome weeds in 26 different crops and noncrop areas.
The current survey ranks the following weeds as the most troublesome or the most common among broadleaf crops, fruits and vegetables:
TOP 10 WEEDS IN BROADLEAF CROPS, FRUITS & VEGETABLES
- Palmer amaranth
- Common lambsquarters
- Horseweed (marestail)
- Morningglory (ivyleaf, pitted, tall)
- Waterhemp (tall, common)
- Nutsedge (yellow, purple)
- Common ragweed
- Giant ragweed
- Nightshade (eastern black, hairy)
- Common lambsquarters
- Foxtail (giant, green, yellow)
- Morningglory (ivyleaf, pitted, tall)
- Palmer amaranth
- Redroot pigweed
- Waterhemp (tall, common)
- Horseweed (marestail)
- Common ragweed
“Weed scientists have confirmed multiple cases of herbicide resistance in all six of these weed species, except for the morningglories where there is suspected resistance to glyphosate,” says Lee Van Wychen, Ph.D., science policy director for WSSA. “While each of these species has evolved traits that make them widespread and tough competitors in broadleaf crops like soybeans and cotton, there is no question that their difficulty to control with herbicides has pushed them to the top of the list in this survey.”
WSSA also sorted the survey data to produce the following crop-specific results, shown below by crop, most troublesome weed and most common weed, respectively:
- Alfalfa: Canada thistle; dandelion
- Canola: kochia; wild oat
- Cotton: Palmer amaranth; morningglory (ivyleaf, pitted, tall)
- Fruits & nuts: field bindweed; horseweed (marestail)
- Peanuts: nutsedge (yellow, purple); Palmer amaranth
- Pulse crops: common lambsquarters; common lambsquarters
- Soybeans: horseweed, waterhemp (tall, common); waterhemp (tall, common)
- Sugar beets: common lambsquarters; common lambsquarters
- Vegetables: nutsedge (yellow, purple); common lambsquarters
Common lambsquarters is widely distributed across the northern half of the United States and southern Canada. It is not surprising that it ranked as the most common weed in sugar beets, vegetable crops and pulse crops, such as dry edible beans, lentils and chickpeas.
WSSA plans to conduct habitat-specific weed surveys annually. The 2017 survey will focus on weeds in grass crops, pasture and turf, while the 2018 survey will focus on weeds in aquatic environments, natural areas and other noncrop settings.
The 2016 survey data is posted online at http://wssa.net/wssa/weed/surveys.
For more information specific to herbicide-resistant weeds, see the International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds, available at http://weedscience.com.
The report can be found at:4R Nutrient Stewardship Sustainability Report
For more information, visit: http://fertilizercanada.ca/
This collaborative effort will see the current compliment of 80 automated weather stations across southwestern Ontario expand to a goal of more than 400 reporting locations when completed. Producers who sign up for the AGGrower Daily Dashboard will have the ability to have field specific climate information delivered directly to their laptop, cellular phone or tablet.
"Our web based weather service will assist producers in managing their crops by providing real time precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, growth models on individual fields and notifications of critical stages during the growth cycle," says Dale Cowan, senior agronomist and sales manager for AGRIS Co-operative and Wanstead Farmers Co-operative. "The AGGrower Daily Dashboard will also assist in timely do it yourself crop scouting using integrated pest management principles," added Cowan.
To supplement the web based weather reporting network, Cowan is now recruiting dedicated "citizen scientists" to join the Community Collaborative Rain Hail and Snow network, (CoCoRahs).
"These volunteers would be part of a larger community of like-minded people that would help support our automated weather stations with additional rainfall data to support our new initiative of the AGGrower Daily Dashboard program," says Cowan.
Volunteer "citizen scientists" must live in Essex, Chatham-Kent, Lambton, West Middlesex or Elgin Counties, have a keen interest and dedication to collecting rainfall and a smart phone.
Installation and training on the use of the special rain gauge is provided at no charge to those participating. For more information on how you can become a "citizen scientist" contact Paul deNijs at 226-626-1048.
This project is funded in part through Growing Forward 2 (GF2), a federal-provincial-territorial initiative. The Agricultural Adaptation Council assists in the delivery of GF2 in Ontario.
Although Canada is home to internationally award-winning wines, the cold winters and short growing season are a constant challenge. Photo by Dr. Mehdi Sharifi, Trent University.
August 16, 2016 - Although Canada is home to internationally award-winning wines, the cold winters and short growing season are a constant challenge. The solution is one that has never been tried with wine grapes before until now: moving production indoors.
That’s what Dr. Mehdi Sharifi, a Canada Research Chair in sustainable agriculture and professor at Trent University’s School of the Environment, has been working on.
And it could change the entire future of Canada’s wine industry, including dramatically expanding organic wine production.
“Winter injury and low yields are the two main challenges for the wine industry in central and eastern Canada,” he explains.
Winter injury is freezing damage to the wood and bud tissues of the grape vine caused by cold temperatures or erratic temperature swings. It results in significant direct losses in grape production and even greater losses in wine production, and prevents some grape varieties, like the popular Shiraz, from being grown in Canada.
In the case of severe winter injury, vines need to be replaced but it takes newly planted vines three to five years to become productive. That’s an expensive wait without income for grape growers, who face annual costs of $10,000 – 15,000 an acre to maintain grape vines.
Sharifi’s indoor grape growing work began when he was approached by Canadian Distribution Channel Inc., a company interested in building an agritourism venture by growing popular Australian, South American and European grape varieties inside.
He began by developing a specially formulated growing media that would allow the grapes to grow quickly indoors.
“You can’t use field or potting soil indoors for growing grapes. Growing media for perennial plants such as grapes need a balance of chemical, physical and biological conditions and nutrients for best growth,” says Sharifi.
“We’ve created and tested a formula that works great and supplies nutrients to the grapes for a long period of time,” he added.
The formula’s natural ingredients could open new possibilities for organic grape production too, with the protected indoor conditions making organic growing easier.
As Sharifi’s work progressed, he also discovered that the stable temperatures and environment of indoor production can simulate a natural growing season year round and shorten the amount of time new vines need to come into production.
“We found that vines can grow two to three times as fast as they can grow outdoors. We can also simulate the equivalent of two to three growing seasons per year, so we can bring new vines into production in only one to two years,” he explains. “This doubles or even triples yearly yields, which will compensate for the extra cost of the greenhouse needed for indoor production.”
Sharifi is optimistic about his results to date. The grapes he has grown indoors have a higher than required sugar standard and their pH and acidity levels are suitable for wine production, but he cautions that more work remains to be done before his discovery can be implemented commercially.
Down the road he sees potential for producing wines with higher antioxidants or health-boosting phenolic compounds, but it’s the widespread application of his innovation that bears the most promise for Canada’s wine producers.
“This can work for any grape variety, and the interest of the industry lies with being able to grow varieties that we currently can’t in Canada because of our climate,” he says.
Sharifi’s work has received support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.
The water quality around Ontario’s Holland Marsh is getting better and better, in large part due to the Holland Marsh Growers’ Association Water Project (HMGA WP).
The project is now in its third year and is funded by Environment Canada’s “Lake Simcoe Georgian Bay Clean-Up Fund.” It aims to both promote whole-farm water quality improvement and evaluate new water treatment technologies, with the focus on Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay through the Nottawasaga Valley, Severn Sound and Lake Simcoe watersheds.
“Specifically, we are identifying levels and types of contaminants, whether they are nutrients or sediments, in discharge water from horticultural use,” says HMGA WP manager Charlie Lalonde. “We’re also testing innovative and alternative treatment technologies, and management strategies focusing on water use and treatment. Along with that comes sharing the findings with the broader horticultural industry.”
The project includes greenhouse operations and farms with field vegetables, livestock, potatoes and nursery crops. Treatment systems under evaluation are new and must be retrofitted into already-existing systems.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Environment Canada, and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs are major governance partners, contributing funding and staff time and expertise to the HMGA WP. Individual growers are contributing ideas and practical feedback, test sites and financial support. Staff at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change are providing advice about regulatory compliance. Research project participants include the University of Guelph, SRG Soil Research Group, McMaster and Western Universities, Flowers Canada, Farm & Food Care and the Ontario Fruit and Vegetable Growers’ Association. Companies taking part are Bishop Technologies, Newterra, Voltea, ProMinent Fluid Controls, various engineering firms (for treatment system design) and GroPak Farms.
When asked what broad lessons have become clear over the last three years, Lalonde says: “We’ve learned the first step in a wash water treatment system is most critical. Many technologies work well after a significant amount of soil has been removed, so we have to improve de-dirting of root vegetables to reduce soil load prior to washing. Muck soils are most difficult to remove from water due to particle size and particle density, so physical separation does not work.”
Lalonde believes participating growers appreciate the water project because their involvement has allowed them to address their individual situations. For other growers, Lalonde and other HMGA WP staff conduct outreach every year through workshops and other industry events. Workshop materials are also available on the HMGA WP website, along with articles, fact sheets and a blog.
“Water project staff are on grower farm sites every week to discuss treatment system options and performance,” Lalonde adds. “I think one of the most important aspects of this project is the way it has broadened the support infrastructure for the sector through introduction of new technologies, engineering firms, research partners and so on. It’s very much about continuously connecting the dots between growers and support services to make sure those offering services understand the challenges.”
The federal government is about to announce phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie, to be met by 2018 under the bi-national “Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.” While Lalonde notes that Lake Simcoe is its own watershed system, he sees Great Lakes’ water concerns as similar and the targets relevant.
“Growers welcome targets as they allow for better planning,” he says. “However, in each of these water bodies, the source of nutrients can be different so site-specific analysis is required.”
Lalonde believes the Great Lakes and other bodies of water such as Lake Simcoe will continue to receive lots of attention and require improvements as urban pressure intensifies.
“Although agriculture is not the major contributor to water quality, these bodies of water in both regions experience some agricultural runoff of phosphorus and nitrogen,” he says. “We are pleased that this project has produced tangible results and has created options for growers. Through continuous improvement, the environmental profile will continue to change.”
For more information on the project, visit hmgawater.ca.
Over the past few years, the global agricultural industry – including Canada – has been abuzz with discussion about the use of pesticides on crops and the health of honeybees. Various hypotheses regarding colony collapse disorder (CCD) and the decline of honeybee colonies have been suggested and tested, leading to the banning of some classes of pesticides.
But, according to the latest research from Europe, one pesticide may not be the only culprit.
Researchers with the department of zoology at the University of Otago in New Zealand recently published a study in the journal Ecology examining what effect the organophosphate chlorpyrifos can have on honeybees. Insects were gathered from 17 sites around the Otago area. While levels of the pesticide in the bees were found to be well below the L50 point – the lethal dose for 50 per cent of the animals tested – “the formation and retrieval of appetitive olfactory memories was severely affected,” the researchers found.
“As learning and memory play a central role in the behavioural ecology and communication of foraging bees, chlorpyrifos, even in sublethal doses, may threaten the success and survival of this important insect pollinator,” they concluded.
In a study published recently in the Journal of Chromatography A, researchers with the National Veterinary Research Institute in Poland have discovered that European honeybees are being poisoned by up to 57 different pesticides.
“Bee health is a matter of public concern – bees are considered critically important for the environment and agriculture by pollinating more than 80 per cent of crops and wild plants in Europe,” said Tomasz Kiljanek, lead author of the study. “We wanted to develop a test for a large number of pesticides currently approved for use in the European Union to see what is poisoning the bees.”
Kiljanek and his team used a testing method called QuEChERS, typically used to look for pesticide residue on food, to analyze bees from 70 different poisoning incidents. They were able to test for 200 different pesticides simultaneously – about 98 per cent approved for use in the EU – plus additional compounds created when the pesticides break down.
Their results – 57 different pesticides were present in the bees. According to the study’s conclusions, “it is the broadest spectrum of pesticides and their metabolites, till now, detected in honeybees.”
“This is just the beginning of our research on the impact of pesticides on honeybee health,” said Kiljanek. “Honeybee poisoning incidents are the tip of the iceberg. Even at low levels, pesticides can weaken bees’ defense systems, allowing parasites or viruses to kill the colony. Our results will help expand our knowledge about the influence of pesticides on honeybee health and will provide important information for other researchers to better assess the risk connected with the mix of current pesticides.”
While the outcome of the project was to develop a new tool for studying which pesticides may actually be having a negative effect on honeybees, it has also shown that improving bee health isn’t as simple as banning one pesticide. The issue appears to be a bit more complicated than that.
February 4, 2014 – Syngenta Canada Inc. and Dalhousie University, together with the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, are partnering on an innovative research project to increase bee populations and blueberry yields in the Maritime provinces.
Canada is the world’s largest producer of wild blueberries and most are grown in Quebec and in the Atlantic provinces. They are important economically and are part of our cultural identity.
“An increase in the demand for blueberries has resulted in the expansion of blueberry operations. Bee populations have not, however, increased in tandem,” says Dr. Paul Hoekstra, stewardship manager with Syngenta Canada Inc.
Bees and blueberries are an important combination and over the past two years declines in blueberry yields have caused concerns.
“An inadequate supply of bees required to pollinate a healthy blueberry crop has been identified as an important problem,” says Dr. Chris Cutler, associate professor, Dalhousie University, Faculty of Agriculture. “This research project hopes to address a couple of the factors that may be part of the problem – nesting habitat limitations and a lack of food resources.”
The research will involve planting of bee-attractive forage plants and creation of bee nesting sites. Impacts of these habitat amendments on bee populations and blueberry pollination will be analyzed over two years.
“We’re planting annual buckwheat, which is particularly attractive to bees, along the edge of blueberry fields,” explains researcher Robyn McCallum. “We’re also examining the use of nesting blocks that can be used by certain cavity nesting bees, and how nesting block design, placement, and management affects the number of bees in a field and, as a result, pollination rates.”
Originally from Tabusintac, New Brunswick, the Dalhousie Master of Science student is hopeful that the blueberry sector will benefit from her research.
“We think the research will demonstrate the benefits of these practical methods to boost native bee populations.”
Syngenta Canada is supporting the research through their Operation Pollinator program. The program includes support for research and other initiatives that contribute to enhanced biodiversity and habitat in support of healthy pollinator populations.
I first reported on the problem of the steep rise in bee mortalities back in the March 2013 issue of Fruit and Vegetable Magazine in an editorial entitled “The buzz about bees and neonicotinoids.” I described what actions were being taken in the European Union regarding the use of neonicotinoids and highlighted a conference presentation made by B.C.’s provincial apiculturist on the issue.
Over the summer, more action has been taken to protect bees.
Back in July, the Ontario government announced the formation of an industry working group with a mandate of providing advice on how to prevent bee mortalities. The group comprises beekeepers, farmers, agri-business representatives plus federal and government officials.
At the time of the group’s formation, the Ontario Beekeepers’ Association spoke in favour of the move but
stressed that a ban on neonicotinoid use needed to be put in place before the 2014 planting season.
“Our industry simply cannot sustain these losses,” said Dan Davidson, president of the OBA, in a press release. “Allowing the status quo to remain would spell tragedy for the bees that pollinate our fruits and vegetables.”
In early September, the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) of Health Canada released a Notice of Intent – Action to Protect Bees from Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides – and invited interested parties to comment on it over the next 90 days. The deadline for written comments is Dec. 12, 2013.
“Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency has determined that current agricultural practices related to the use of neonicotinoid treated corn and soybean seed are affecting the environment due to their impacts on bees and other pollinators,” the document states.
According to the PMRA, a “significant” number of reports involving the death of bees were received in 2012 from corn growing regions in Ontario and Quebec. When tested, about 70 per cent of the dead bees tested positive for residues of neonicotinoid insecticides. That “significant” number of reports continued in 2013.
“Consequently, we have concluded that current agricultural practices related to the use of neonicotinoid treated corn and soybean seed are not sustainable.”
The PMRA recommends for the 2014 planting season that the following protective measures for corn and soybean production be put in place:
- the use of safer, dust-reducing seed flow lubricants
- adherence to safer seed planting practices
- new pesticide and seed package labels with enhanced warnings
- the provision of updated value information to support the continued need for neonicotinoid treatment on up to 100 per cent of the corn seed and 50 per cent of the soybean seed
“Based on the group’s early discussions, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food is working with seed trade and grain farmer organizations to raise farmers’ awareness of their options to plant non-insecticide treated corn and soybean seed,” she said, adding, “We need the federal government to take definitive action and make bee health and pesticide use a top priority.”
To help address the issues facing bees, Bayer CropScience has opened a North American Bee Care Center in North Carolina to complement the company’s existing bee centre in Germany.
“Our scientists are working to help solve some of the most pressing honeybee health problems, as their importance to the global food supply cannot be overstated,” said Jim Blome, president and CEO of Bayer CropScience.
Muddying the issue even more are recent research findings from a study out of the University of California showing that selenium – which can occur naturally in plants – can also be toxic to bees.
The value of honeybees to the pollination of crops is estimated at $2 billion annually.
It is reassuring to see the numerous actions being taken by industry, science and government to address the health of Canada’s bee population. It’s a complicated and contentious issue but all continue to work together to find a solution, a reflection of its importance.
Oct. 29, 2012, Mississauga, ON - The producers of the Canadian International Farm Show are pleased to announce that, for the fourth year, they will be presenting a deserving student the ‘Youth in Agriculture’ educational bursary.
Since the event was taken over by Master Promotions Ltd. 5 years ago, we have annually given back to the Agriculture Community by presenting this bursary to a deserving student who is pursuing an agricultural based career, thus supporting the development of the next generation of agricultural leaders.
In 2013, we will present a $1,000.00 bursary to a qualified recipient. The selection committee will once again consist of and be managed by the Junior Farmers’ Association of Ontario.
We would once again like to congratulate our 2012 recipient, Ashleigh Landman from Grand Valley, Ontario. Ashleigh attends the University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus, working towards her associate diploma in Agriculture. Her goals post graduation include taking over the family goat farm, which includes 150 milking does. Ashleigh plans on expanding and has future aspirations of an on-site dairy.
We wish her luck in all her future endeavours.
Master Promotions Ltd. would like to thank the Junior Farmers’ Association of Ontario for their assistance in administering and organizing a selection committee to determine the winners of these awards.
Also, we encourage members of the Agricultural community to nominate a deserving producer or agribusiness for our annual Producer of the Year Award. The purpose of this award is to recognize excellence in farm operations or any sort of Agribusiness. Individuals are encouraged to make nominations by completing the nomination form on our website before December 3rd, 2012.
Nominees must reside in the province of Ontario to be considered for this prestigious award. The awards will be presented at the Industry Reception on February 05, 2013 as part of the CIFS festivities.
Nomination forms are available on our website.
The 2013 Canadian International Farm Show will take place February 5-7, 2013 at the International Centre in Mississauga, Ontario.
For complete details and a bursary application, please visit www.canadianfarmshow.ca
Jul. 27, 2012 - Soybean varieties that thrive even in soggy fields could result from studies by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists. This would help increase profits for Mississippi Delta farmers who can see yield losses as high as 25 percent when they plant soybean crops in rotation with paddy rice.
This work is being conducted by former Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientist Tara VanToai, who now works as a collaborator at ARS' Soil Drainage Research Unit in Columbus, Ohio. ARS is USDA's chief intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA priority of ensuring international food security.
For more than two decades, VanToai has studied flood tolerance in soybeans in a range of environments, including greenhouses, laboratories, growth chambers, experimental fields and farm fields. She and her colleagues are finding and incorporating genes from non-native soybean varieties in an effort to supplement the narrow genetic base of U.S. soybeans and improve their tolerance to wet soil and associated diseases.
In one study, VanToai used outdoor "screenhouses"—which are greenhouses with screens instead of glass—to assess the flood tolerance of 21 soybean lines. This study included soybean lines native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lines developed via selection by farmers and gardeners, and lines from Australia, China, Japan and Taiwan that were created with modern breeding techniques.
The plants were grown in pots. When each plant was in full bloom, it was placed for two weeks in a bucket of water so that the water level was two inches above the soil surface. The screenhouse tests identified the top three flood-tolerant lines: Nam Vang, which is native to Cambodia; VND2, native to China; and ATF15-1, which is native to Australia. Plants from these three lines grew the tallest and produced the biggest seeds and highest yields. When the study was replicated in flooded experimental fields, the results were the same.
Read more about this work and other research VanToai has conducted on soybean flood tolerance in the July 2012 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.
June 19, 2012, Quebec City, QB - Farmers are always looking for ways to improve their farming practices, increase their productivity and maintain the sustainability of the environment. The Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique will receive an investment of more than $250,000 to improve an integrated computer model that examines the economic and environmental impacts of implementing beneficial management practices (BMPs) on the farm and on a broader landscape scale.
"This program allows farmers to make more informed decisions about which beneficial management practices are right for their farm, which in the end, means more money in their pocket and less stress on the environment," said Agriculture Minister Gerry Ritz.
The investment for this computer model is part of the $14-million Growing Forward Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices (WEBs) project. The WEBs project, established in 2004 as the first of its kind in Canada, operates within nine small agricultural watersheds across the nation in order to better understand the environmental and economic performance of BMPs. Previous to this study, the costs and environmental benefits of BMPs had seldom been measured on a broader landscape scale. Results from the WEBs projects are providing a foundation for understanding the broader applicability of these BMPs within a specific region. Farmers can use this knowledge to maintain high agricultural productivity, while minimizing the impacts of farming on the environment. Results can also be used in planning future agricultural policies and programming.
The refined computer model will help farmers and land managers decide which BMPs will be most effective in improving soil and water quality by providing a framework to maintain agricultural productivity while minimizing the impact of farming on the environment.
Over 70 other federal, provincial, academic and non-governmental organizations are also partners in this national project, which will run until 2013.
For more information about the WEBs project, please visit: www.agr.gc.ca/webs.
To find out more about Growing Forward and its initiatives, please visit: www.agr.gc.ca/growingforward.
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Alberta Potato Industry Association Burgers & BeansWed Jul 05, 2017 @ 4:00PM - 08:00PM
2017 Potato Growers of Alberta Golf TournamentThu Jul 06, 2017 @ 8:00AM - 05:00PM
Dead Weeds TourWed Jul 12, 2017 @ 8:00AM - 05:00PM
18th Annual Enology & Viticulture Conference & Trade ShowMon Jul 17, 2017 @ 8:00AM - 05:00PM