Broccoli and caneberry growers in Canada now have another tool to assist in the control of Group 2-acetolactate synthase (ALS) resistant weeds, such as red root pigweed, green pigweed, eastern black nightshade and common ragweed.
Chateau, containing flumioxazin (51.1 per cent), is a residual pre-emergent herbicide. A PPO inhibitor, Chateau’s mode of action is different than many other herbicides, so it helps fight resistance, while providing long-lasting control of tough weeds including Group 2-resistant weeds.
“Chateau has proven to be an effective herbicide on a wide range of crops” says Maria Dombrowsky, horticulture specialist at Nufarm Agriculture Inc. “I am pleased that this tool is now available to broccoli and caneberry growers for incorporation into their IPM program.”
Chateau should be used in rotation with other herbicide modes of action. Chateau is also registered for use on other crops, including pome fruit, blueberries and strawberries. For more information, consult the complete product label at www.nufarm.ca/product/chateau/.
September 28, 2016, Lawrence, KS – A greenhouse experiment featured in the most recent issue of the journal Weed Technology shows that herbicide spray drift from the 2,4-D and dicamba can severely damage wine grapes planted near agronomic crops.
Jan. 21, 2016, Urbana, Ill. – Weeds are a major scourge for organic growers, who often must invest in multiple control methods to protect crop yields. A relatively new weed control method known as abrasive weeding, or "weed blasting," could give organic growers another tool. The method, recently field-tested at the University of Illinois (U of I), is surprisingly effective.
In conjunction with plastic mulch, abrasive weeding reduced final weed biomass by 69 to 97 per cent compared to non-weeded control plots, said U of I agroecologist Samuel Wortman.
Abrasive weeding involves blasting weed seedlings with tiny fragments of organic grit, using an air compressor. For the current study, grit was applied through a hand-held siphon-fed sand-blasting unit connected to a gas-powered air compressor, which was hauled down crop rows with a walk-behind tractor. The study looked at a number of grit sources: walnut shells, granulated maize cob, greensand, and soybean meal. If applied at the right plant growth stage, the force of the abrasive grit severely damages stems and leaves of weed seedlings.
Wortman found no significant differences between the grit types in terms of efficacy. "When it leaves the nozzle, it's at least Mach 1 [767 mph]," Wortman noted. "The stuff comes out so fast, it doesn't really matter what the shape of the particle is." Because ricocheting particles can pose a risk to the applicator, Wortman advises using protective eyewear.
Blasted grit does not discriminate between weed and crop seedlings, which makes it important to use this method in transplanted crops that are substantially larger than weed seedlings at the time of grit application. Although some visible damage occurred on stems and leaves of both tomato and pepper crops, the damage did not affect marketable fruit yield. Studies are ongoing to determine whether abrasions on crop tissues could result in increased susceptibility to disease, but early results show little effect.
Importantly, plots with plastic mulch and one or more blasting treatment achieved the same fruit yields seen in hand-weeded plots, and 33 to 44 per cent greater yields than in non-weeded control plots.
An additional benefit of weed blasting is the potential for growers to use organic fertilizers, such as soybean meal, as blasting material. "We expect that abrasive weeding could contribute between 35 and 105 kg nitrogen per hectare [31 – 94 lbs per acre] to soil fertility." The idea that a grower could both fertilize and kill weeds in a single pass is appealing, but it is still unknown whether the fertilizer would be available for plant uptake within critical windows.
According to Wortman's research, weed blasting does affect some weeds more than others. Essentially, the smaller the seedling, the better. Also, seedlings whose growing points are aboveground (annual broadleaf species) are more susceptible to blasting than seedlings whose growing tips are located belowground (grasses and broadleaf perennials). Finally, Wortman noted that the presence of plastic mulch seemed to factor strongly into the equation. Weed blasting alone "is not a silver bullet, but it is an improvement," he said.
The method is now being tested in different horticultural crops, including broccoli and kale, with and without additional weed control methods. Early results suggest that the presence of polyethylene mulch or biodegradable plastic mulch strongly enhances the success of weed blasting, as compared with straw mulch and bare soil. Wortman and his collaborators have also developed a mechanized grit applicator, which they are currently testing.
The paper, "Air-propelled abrasive grits reduce weed abundance and increase yields in organic vegetable production," was published in Crop Protection. Funding was provided by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture's Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative.
December 22, 2015, Ridgetown, Ont – At the recent 70th annual meeting of the North Central Weed Science Society (NCWSS) in Indianapolis, Dr. Darren Robinson, associate professor with plant agriculture, received the Distinguished Achievement Award in Research.
Darren’s research focuses on high value vegetable crops including tomatoes, sweet corn, cucumbers, pumpkins, squash, green and lima beans, field peppers, carrots, red beets, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, potatoes and peas.
Selection for this award is based on demonstrated excellence and creativity in research activities through conducting research and applying the results to solve problems in weed science.
As a well-respected Ontario agricultural scientist, Darren has published 85 peer reviewed manuscripts, authored or co-authored three book chapters, supervised or co-supervised 14 graduate students, presented 74 papers at scientific conferences and given over 120 extension presentations and helped deliver 19 short courses.
November 4, 2014, Mississauga, Ont – Growers in Eastern Canada now have a new and improved weed management solution for pre-plant and pre-harvest use. BASF recently announced it has received registration from the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) for Eragon LQ herbicide for the 2015 season.
Eragon LQ delivers weed control in a new liquid formulation for faster fill-up times and improved tank cleanout. Eragon LQ is a unique Group 14 chemistry that uses the active ingredient Kixor to help growers improve their glyphosate burn down in the spring and improve their harvest in the fall. It provides improved control of weeds like lamb’s-quarters and Canada fleabane, including Group 2-, triazine- and glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes.
“We know growers prefer liquid formulations and Eragon LQ is another example of BASF’s commitment to providing growers with the solutions they need to produce the best crop possible,” said Sean Chiki, brand manager for corn and soybean herbicides at BASF Canada. “Eragon LQ has also received registration for pre-harvest weed management applications in cereals. Aside from pre-plant applications, this new use pattern gives growers another application window to manage tough to control weeds, combine cereals more efficiently and control perennials for cleaner fields in the spring.”
For more information about Eragon LQ, visit www.agsolutions.ca.
Growers face a two-pronged challenge when trying to defeat weeds in a potato field. On the one hand, they want to kill the weeds; on the other, they want to grow potatoes.
This challenge was highlighted in two presentations Pam Hutchinson, an associate professor in the Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences at the University of Idaho, delivered at the recent Pacific Agriculture Show in Abbotsford, B.C.
Hutchinson made two key points to growers: herbicides should be matched to soil conditions to ensure developing tubers are adequately protected against competition, while being sure that the materials they’re using don’t stunt the growth of potato plants while they’re doing what they’re supposed to – suppress weeds.
Hutchinson came packing a tonne of data from research trials that underscored how tightly managed herbicide applications need to be for maximum effectiveness. The information reviewed work with Chateau, Outlook, Prism, Prowl H20, and the new offerings Lorox and Reflex.
Hutchinson said sandy soils may offer good drainage, but the same quality also lets highly soluble herbicides like Matrix and Outlook leach out of the rows, allowing weeds to take hold. She recommended Chateau and Lorox, which are not as soluble, in these conditions.
A less soluble herbicide, such as Prism or Metribuzin, can also provide adequate coverage in fields with heavier soils and prone to clodding.
She also encouraged growers to time herbicide applications as close to emergence as possible. While weeds can be taken out with a cultivator when potatoes have put out a couple of leaves, Hutchinson advised applying herbicides when the potatoes are hilled, which usually occurs four to eight weeks after planting.
“You’ll get the herbicides down where you need them and they’ll last into the growing season until a little beyond row close, when you start having a crop to help compete with those weeds,” she said.
But there’s another variable – the weather. Suppressing weeds is desirable, but potatoes are also susceptible to the effects of some materials. While they can metabolize products as diverse as Roundup and Chateau, little will happen without a good run of sun.
“The only way the potato can be safe ... is to metabolize that herbicide, break it down to a non-herbicidal chemical,” Hutchinson said. “So if it’s cloudy or cool, the potato is not growing very fast and not metabolizing anything very fast.”
Hutchinson’s trials indicate that the plants can recover, but even a brief slowdown in the plant’s metabolism can lead to short-term stunting and a slight reduction in yield.
Outlook presents a different scenario. It’s typically applied at a higher rate, particularly on coarse soils, and this can lead to early season injury – leaf crinkling and chlorosis – if the weather at application is cold and cloudy. But once it warms up and the potatoes are growing, Hutchinson said there’s no reduction in yield.
A particular challenge for growers in Idaho, however, is protecting potatoes from the carryover effects of Roundup (glyphosphate) as well as dicamba and pyralids. The problem particularly affects seed potatoes, which get a dose late in the season when Roundup is applied in adjacent grain fields. Roundup drifts on to foliage, and from there, travels to the tuber.
Carryover of the material has dogged growers. It persists for up to eight months in tubers, stunting growth the following season. While potatoes can metabolize the herbicide, the process requires sunlight and warmth – something the tubers don’t get in storage.
While a high concentration can prevent sprouting, even small concentrations can inhibit emergence and be expressed in low vigour and foliar injury.
Recovery is possible, of course. Tests of seed stock from treated Russett Burbank and Shepody plants stayed hard and intact throughout the growing season – until the eight-month window required for metabolizing the glyphosphate was up. Then they started sprouting. Similarly, the granddaughters of affected tubers were fine.
To protect themselves, Hutchinson told growers to avoid cross contamination of their equipment, having equipment dedicated to Roundup if at all possible. Talking with neighbours whose fields abut their own is also a wise move, so that everyone knows when, where, and what concentration of Roundup is going on fields.
March 18, 2014, Guelph, Ont – Bayer CropScience Canada recently announced the registration of Alion as a pre-emergent residual herbicide for grapes.
The Group 29 herbicide provides long-term residual control of annual grassy and broadleaf weeds and is currently registered for use with tree fruit. It prevents weeds from emerging by inhibiting the growth of the developing radicle in the seed germination zone.
“Canadian grape growers will see the benefits of a completely new mode of action that provides longer lasting control compared to competitive products,” explained David Kikkert, portfolio manager for horticulture with Bayer CropScience. “This unique mode of action combined with its tank-mix flexibility makes it an excellent resistance management tool especially for glyphosate, triazine and ALS-resistant weeds.”
Alion can be tank-mixed with glyphosate, Gramoxone herbicide, and Ignite herbicide in grapes to provide control of already emerged weeds. It can be applied to established grapes of at least five full growing seasons after transplanting and when soil disturbance is finished, including hilling and de-hilling operations.
Alion is now also registered as a tank-mix with Sencor herbicide or Gramoxone herbicide in tree fruit, in addition to the previous registered tank-mixes of glyphosate and Ignite.
For more information, visit BayerCropScience.ca.
January 13, 2014, Mississauga, Ont – BASF Canada Inc. (BASF) has received regulatory approval for Outlook, a new herbicide that will help potato growers address two significant challenges to their production.
As the amount and timing of rainfall becomes more variable, Outlook will provide consistent control of nightshade, pigweed and annual grasses, even under drier conditions. As a Group 15 herbicide, Outlook also controls both triazine and Group 2 resistant biotypes whose populations continue to increase across the country.
“Based on our extensive field-scale Canadian research program and several years of commercial use in the U.S., we see Outlook as an excellent new tool that will help growers address both inconsistent rainfall and the growing problem of herbicide resistance,” says Bruce Irons, a technical specialist for horticultural products with BASF Canada.
Outlook contains the active ingredient Dimethenamid-P, which inhibits weed root and shoot growth, controlling susceptible weeds before they emerge from the soil. Outlook is applied after potatoes are planted but before they emerge from the soil.
May 13, 2013, Calgary, AB – Always looking for ways to improve their products, Dow AgroSciences is introducing new formulations for three horticultural products.
Entrust SC insecticide, previously packaged as a wettable powder and sold under the name Entrust 80W, will now be delivered in a new liquid formulation in one litre bottles. Entrust SC provides the performance both conventional and organic growers have come to trust and is active on several economically important insect pests of fruits and vegetables.
Entrust is approved by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) for use on certified organically grown crops. The active ingredient in Entrust is spinosad and is produced by fermentation of naturally occurring bacteria.
Lorsban NT insecticide uses technology to produce a low-odour, water-based formulation of Lorsban 4E insecticide. Like its predecessor, Lorsban NT offers versatility in controlling a wide variety of pests across numerous crops.
Lorsban NT controls insects through contact plus ingestion and vapour inhalation.
Kerb SC herbicide will replace its granular predecessor Kerb 50WSP. Kerb SC is liquid formulation that provides selective grassy weed control in a wide variety of horticultural crops and established pastures.
A soil active herbicide, Kerb SC is absorbed by plants through the root system, translocated upward and distributed throughout the entire plant. Kerb can be applied preplant incorporated on certain crops, pre-emergence and post-emergence to all registered crops.
“Titus PRO provides exceptional post-emergent control of a broad spectrum of grassy and broadleaf weeds, and its multiple modes of action make it an excellent resistance management tool,” says Ray Janssen, market segment manager for horticulture with DuPont Crop Protection.
Packaged in a 40 acre case, Titus PRO delivers multiple modes of action – Group 2 and Group 5 – in one co-pack, providing the industry with a resistance management tool.
“Growers have always appreciated the control of annual grasses they’ve achieved using Prism SG. Now with the additional power of metribuzin, they’ll see enhanced residual control of a far wider range of broadleaf weeds as well,” says Janssen. “We’re pleased to be able to deliver this co-pack of powerful performance and convenience to the largest horticultural market in Canada.”
Titus PRO controls grassy weeds such as barnyard grass, quackgrass and lamb’s-quarters and broadleaf weeds such as cocklebur, common chickweed and post-emergent stinkweed. A full listing of registered uses is available on the product’s label.
For more information about Titus PRO or any other DuPont product, call 1-800-667-3925 or visit cropprotection.dupont.ca.
Prowl H2O herbicide was already labeled for management of weeds on corn, soybeans, snap beans, adzuki beans and dry bulb onions in Canada.
These minor use submissions were sponsored in 2010 and 2011 by the minor use office of OMAF in response to minor use priorities identified by producers and extension personnel in Canada.
Weed control is an important component of green onion and leek production and has been identified as a priority by producers for several years. The registration of Prowl H2O herbicide is an important step towards improving the weed management and resistance management toolkit.
For copies of the new supplemental label for green onions and leeks contact Kristen Callow, OMAF, Harrow (519) 738-1232 or visit the BASF Canada website.
December 19, 2012 – There has been a lot of work conducted by Dr. Peter Sikkema, Dr. Francois Tardif and many graduate students (Joe Vink, Holly Byker, Joanna Follings) at the University of Guelph to determine the extent of glyphosate resistant weeds in Ontario and potential management options.
Currently, there are three species with resistance to glyphosate in Ontario, giant ragweed since 2008 (71 locations), Canada fleabane since 2010 (84 total locations) and common ragweed (1 location). READ MORE
December 18, 2012, Dorchester, Ont – The Ranman 400SC fungicide label has expanded once again.
Ranman can now be used for the control of late blight on field tomatoes and the suppression of downy mildew on brassica vegetables after recent Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) approvals.
Late blight, which can destroy unprotected crops, has become a bigger concern in tomatoes in recent years with new, more aggressive strains moving into Canada.
The addition of downy mildew suppression to the product label will also be of interest to brassica crop growers. The contact fungicide is rain-fast once dry.
There have been seven User Requested Minor Use Label Expansions (URMULE) for Ranman in 2012. These include the control of downy mildew and cottony leak, and the suppression of phytophthora blight on snap and lima beans; the suppression of downy mildew on head and leaf lettuce; and the control of downy mildew on basil (field and greenhouse).
Ranman contains the active ingredient cyazofamid and is the only product in the FRAC Group 21 of cyanoimidazoles.
June 6, 2012, Mississauga, Ont – According to a recent poll conducted by Ipsos Reid on behalf of BASF Canada Inc. (BASF), three out of four Canadian growers say herbicide-resistant weeds are impacting their bottom line.
The telephone poll, conducted in March 2012, included a sample of 500 farmers in Western and Eastern Canada with minimum acre thresholds.
“We are not surprised by these findings,” says Michael Schaad, BASF business manager for Eastern Canada crop protection. “Resistance is becoming a bigger issue and growers are starting to understand the impacts.”
Group 2 and triazine (Group 5) resistant weeds have been a nuisance to control for decades, and continue to rob farmers of yield. Most recently, Group 2 resistance has been discovered in Quebec for Eastern black nightshade (EBNS), ragweed and pigweed. Glyphosate resistance has been most prevalent lately with the discovery of glyphosate-resistant kochia in the Prairies, and Canada fleabane and giant ragweed in Ontario.
According to the poll, one in two farmers say weeds in their fields are getting tougher to control and most strongly agree that they use herbicides from more than one group to manage their weeds.
“Rotate your crops and your herbicide chemistry groups, use herbicides with multiple modes of action and use full label use rates whenever possible,” says Schaad.
Full tabular results of this poll are available at www.ipsos.ca.
May 23, 2012, Lawrence, KS – Online databases and new smartphone applications are making it easier than ever to track and map infestations of invasive weeds, the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) said.
“These new resources are moving pockets of information out of universities and laboratories and into the public domain where they are readily accessible,” says Lee Van Wychen, Ph.D., WSSA science policy director. “Now scientists, policy makers and even the general public can use the data to track the location and movement of weeds and monitor the effectiveness of management strategies.”
Online weed databases are currently maintained by a variety of public agencies, organizations and educational institutions. Examples include:
- Global Invasive Species Information Network, administered by the National Institute for Invasive Species Science of the U.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center.
- iMapInvasives, managed by The Nature Conservancy.
- Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth, managed by the Mississippi State University Geosystems Research Institute.
- National Institute for Invasive Species Science Database, hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center.
- Plants of the United States, managed by the USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service.
New technologies are also making it easier than ever to capture and report information on the location of weeds so that online databases are more complete.
One example: iPhone and Android applications have been developed by the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia in support of EDDMapS – an online Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System for invasive species.
Previously, weed sightings were submitted to EDDMapS using detailed online forms. But the new applications are game changers. Now, home gardeners, backpackers and other laypeople likely to encounter invasive weeds can participate as well.
“The apps are really fun and easy to use,” says Karan Rawlins, invasive species coordinator at the center. “You simply use your phone to take a picture of the weed, and the application grabs the GPS coordinates automatically. Estimate the size of the infestation, press send and your sighting goes out for validation by state and local experts. It’s so easy that I’ve actually rolled down my window while stuck in traffic to snap a photo and report weeds spotted along the side of the road.”
EDDMapS apps for iPhone, iPad and Android devices can be downloaded for free at apps.bugwood.org. Specially tailored versions were created for Florida, the Southeastern U.S., the Mid-Atlantic region and the Missouri River watershed.
The data reported to EDDMapS is available at no cost to researchers, educators, land managers and others interested in tracking and managing invasive species. It can be searched, queried and downloaded in a variety of formats to evaluate weed distribution for a given locale.
“If you want to collect information on weeds growing in a local park or schoolyard, you simply create an account and download data for that location,” Rawlins said. “You can view the results on an interactive map, download them into an Excel file, sort by species and track infestations over time.”
Wiry wirewormsAgriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) scientist Bob Vernon continues his…
OMAFRA welcomes new vegetable crop specialistMarch 15, 2017, Guelph, Ont – Ontario’s newest vegetable crop…
CanadaGAP program receives government recognitionMarch 13, 2017, Ottawa, Ont – CanadaGAP is very pleased…
Feds help expand markets for Canadian potatoesMarch 20, 2017, Winnipeg, Man – Government officials were in…
2017 Muck Crops ConferenceWed Apr 12, 2017 @ 8:00AM - 05:00PM
2017 Canadian Produce Marketing Association ConventionTue May 09, 2017 @ 8:00AM - 05:00PM
2017 Potato Growers of Alberta Golf TournamentThu Jul 06, 2017 @ 8:00AM - 05:00PM
18th Annual Enology & Viticulture Conference & Trade ShowMon Jul 17, 2017 @ 8:00AM - 05:00PM